THE ANSWERS TO YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT
MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS
The distribution of fluid milk involves more risk of contamination than the handling of any other fresh food product. The very fact that milk contains more vital food elements than any other single food in our diets makes it just as good food for the growth of the numerous kinds of bacteria that may contaminate it. These bacteria may originate in the cow, may be introduced by the milkers or milking apparatus, may be on any of the containers used to hold the milk: pails, cans, bottles, dippers, etc., or may just come from the air in barns, commercial transportation, or in your own home. All reputable dairies recognize these risks in the handling of their products, and take every precaution necessary to guarantee a safe milk supply to their consumers. In addition, many cities and states have laws and appointed administrators to control and regulate the production, distribution and sale of milk to insure a wholesome supply of standardized quality.
Many forms and varieties of milk are available in most sections of the country. Because of milk’s perishability, manufactures have developed certain types of milk of good nutritional value which will keep for long periods of time at room temperature.
You will of course, decide which milk is best for your family, and will no doubt want to use to some extent the different forms depending on your needs. But under no condition should you take a chance with the safety of your milk supply. The milk industry has done a fine job of supervising and controlling the safety of its highly perishable product, and it is the responsibility of every homemaker to always buy pasteurized milk. If you live on a farm and have your own cows, for your personal use; pasteurize your own milk. (More about pasteurization will follow.)
Plain untreated raw milk is used on farms and is still sold in certain rural communities. Its cream content is variable and its bacterial count may cover a wide range. Because diseases such as bovine tuberculosis, typhoid and undulant fever may be transmitted by means of untreated raw milk, it is always advisable to boil raw milk 5 minutes before using. It can also be made safe be pasteurizing (as described l will describe later, but a dairy thermometer and accurate procedure are essential if good results are to be obtained.
Pasteurized milk and cream are made by “heating every particle of milk to a temperature of not less than 143 deg. F and holding it at that temperature for 30 minutes in appropriate pasteurization apparatus.” The milk is then cooled to 50 deg. F. A second and newer method of pasteurization heats milk to a higher temperature, at least 160 deg. F. For less than 15 seconds, and then cools it at once to 50 deg. F. in approved apparatus, properly operated. Pasteurization destroys all harmful bacteria that might have gotten into the milk. It changes the flavor so slightly as to be imperceptible, and does not materially affect the nutritional value. This process has proven its value by practically eliminating epidemics of milk-born diseases in areas were all milk is pasteurized. Milk correctly pasteurized sours normally, showing that desirable bacteria in the milk are not killed in pasteurization.
Homogenized milk has its fat globules (the cream) uniformly dispersed throughout the milk. This is done, in some areas, by forcing the milk under high pressure through very fine holes. Other methods also are used. Homogenized milk is uniform, and the cream does not separate and rise to the top. This thorough distribution of the cream through the milk causes many to feel that it tastes and looks richer, but actually it has the same cream content as milk of the same quality that is not homogenized. It does guarantee the same richness at the bottom of the bottle as at the top.
Certified milk is produced and distributed under carefully controlled hygienic conditions and supervised by a medical commission and the state board of health. Cows, milkers, buildings and equipment are checked periodically. The certificate awarded to an approved dairy indicates that the milk produced there is of uniform composition and that it conforms to rigid requirements as to care and bacterial count. Most certified milk is now pasteurized. It is generally somewhat more expensive than ordinary pasteurized milk, since it must carry the added costs of special supervision.
Vitamin D milk has had its natural content of Vitamin D increased by the addition of a vitamin concentrate. This milk is one of the few sources of dietary vitamin D. Since all children need this vitamin, the advisability of using vitamin D milk for your family is best determined by your family physician. In most cases, vitamin D milk can take care of the child’s vitamin D needs.
Buttermilk may be cultured or obtained directly for the churning of butter. Originally the term buttermilk meant the product left after the butter comes in the process of churning sweet or soured cream. Now it is also used to designate the product made by the addition of certain bacterial cultures to whole or skimmed milk. These bacteria are similar to the harmless types which occur normally in milk, and which are responsible for the natural souring of milk. These bacteria are similar to the harmless types which occur normally in milk, and which are responsible for the natural souring of milk. In natural souring, however, the sanitation and flavor development is not controlled. Cultured buttermilk when made from pasteurized skimmed milk has the same desirable food values and flavor appeal of natural buttermilk, But with the safety and flavor controlled. (If made from whole milk, its food value is greater due to the higher fat content.) Buttermilk is slightly acid and is usually thicker than sweet milk. Special cultured milks, such as acidophilus milk and Yogurt preparations, are sometimes prescribed on special diets, particularly for certain digestive disorders and for infant feeding when ordinary formula cannot be used.
Skimmed milk is milk with almost all the cream removed. It contains far, less fat than whole milk. Most skimmed milk shows a fat content of about 0.1 per cent/ since only butter fat is removed, the remaining milk contains almost all the minerals. Proteins and water soluble vitamins. The caloric value is only half of whole milk. Since its Vitamin A content is negligible due to its lack of butter fat, many dairies add 2000 units per quart to make its vitamin content equivalent to whole milk. Skimmed milk is pasteurized and is desirable in low caloric diets.
Flavored milk is milk such as chocolate milk, is also available and may be made from whole, partially skimmed, or skimmed milk.
Soft curd milk that has been treated by a special process so that the curd formed during digestion will be tenderer. This type of milk is sometimes used in baby formulas, since it is easier to digest. It is also prescribed in the treatment of certain digestive disorders.
Graded milk is available in many cities and is a guide to the bacterial count of the milk both before and after pasteurization. The grades are listed by the United States Public Health Service Milk Ordinance and Code as follows: Certified, Grade A Pasteurized, Grade B Pasteurized, and Grade C Pasteurized. The grade C must be plainly labeled cooking only. There have been some objections raised regarding the use of grades for milk. The main objection voiced was that it is more desirable to regulate the handling of all milk so that it will meet the standards set up for Grad A milk rather than to allow the greater bacterial count of the lower grades. All three grades are considered safe, but the higher bacterial count indicates careless handling resulting in contamination somewhere in the production.
Evaporated milk is made from fresh whole milk of high quality by evaporating 60 per cent of the water content. The milk is then sealed in cans and sterilized by heat. Most of the food value remains, but variable amounts of vitamins B1 (thiamine) and C are lost. Its fat content is about 7.9 percent and it contains not less than 25.9 per cent total milk solids. Practically all evaporated milk has a vitamin D concentrate added. It forms a fine soft curd during digestion. Since all brands of evaporated milk must conform to federal standards, they are similar, and this uniformity makes them particularly useful for baby formulas. Either the addition of an equal measure of water it may be used in almost all kinds of cookery to replace whole fresh milk. Undiluted, very cold evaporated milk will whip like cream. Since it keeps almost indefinitely when un-opened, it is convenient for emergencies and as a supplement to fresh milk. It is usually priced somewhat lower than an equivalent quality of fresh milk. No sugar is added.
Condensed milk should not be confused with evaporated milk; It is made by evaporating about one-half of the water content from a mixture of whole milk and sugar. It contains about 40 per cent sugar and at least 28 percent total milk solids and not less than 8.5 percent butter fat. It is not sterilized, but depends upon the sugar for preservation. Sweetened condensed milks re used mostly to make bakery goods, desserts, and candy. It is more expensive than an equivalent amount of fresh milk but has an individual flavor and other properties that make it pleasing to use in may foods.
Malted milk powder is made by drying and grinding a mixture of whole milk and the liquid separate from a mash of barley malt and wheat flour with additions of small amounts of slat and soda. It contains at least 7.5 percent of butter fat. It is sold in tablet and powder form.
Dry milks are the most concentrated form of milk. They require no refrigeration and little storage space because they are dry, but they must be kept in air-tight, moisture-proof containers to remain fresh. Milk is dried by removing at least 95 percent of the water from either whole or skimmed milk. The milk is either sprayed into drying chamber or on to hot rollers. In the spray process, the milk dries in a fine powder; in the roller process, it dries in a sheet which is scraped off the rollers in flakes. These flakes are then sometimes ground into a powder. The spray process powder mixes with water more thoroughly and rapidly than does the roller products, which has a tendency to settle out upon standing. They are equally satisfactory when a tendency to settle out upon standing. They are equally satisfactory when a tendency to settle out upon standing. They are equally satisfactory when sifted with other dry ingredients for baked products, but for beverages or ice cream it is best to select the spray type. The package label should give the process used.
Dry whole milk is identified by the government as “the product resulting for the removal of water from milk and contains no less than 20% milk fat, and not more than 5 percent moisture.” A quart of reconstituted milk, similar to fresh whole milk in nutritive value, except for constituted milk, similar to fresh whole milk in nutritive value, except for constituted milk, similar to fresh whole milk in nutritive value, except for variable amounts of vitamins B1 and C, may be made by placing 1 ¼ cup of spray process milk on top of 3 ½ cups of water and beating thoroughly. This milk may then be used as a beverage or in cooking.
Non-fat dry milk solids (dried skimmed milk) are identified by the government as “the solids contain the lactose, milk proteins, and milk minerals in the same relative proportions as they were contained in the fresh milk from which the solids were made. “It contains not over 5 percent by weight of moisture, and not over 1 ½ percent fat, unless otherwise indicated.” The use of dried skim milk is an easy and economical way to improve the flavor and nutritional value of foods. It is used chiefly in cookery by sifting it with other dry ingredients to make bread, cakes, biscuits, bread puddings, and as a constituent of many commercial prepared mixes. It can be used to advantage in cooked cereals, ground meats mixtures or sausage products. It can be used in the preparation of whipped chilled gelatin or frozen desserts by placing on the require amounts of water and beating.
Cream is defined “as a portion of milk which contains not less than 18 percent but fat.” In general the same rules of safety and quality that apply to milk apply to cream. : light cream, or coffee cream, usually runs from 18 to 25 percent butter fat, whipping cream from 30 to 40 percent, or even higher. The percentage of butter fat of the cream usually appears on the bottle or carton, and since it is usually true that the higher the butter fat content the more expensive the cream is, it is well to check to see that you are getting the highest butter fat content for the money.
Sour or soured cream should contain at least 18 percent butter fat. It is made by adding a culture to sweet butter. Never buy sour or butter cream in bulk, since its safety for more than a short period cannot be assured, due to hazards of contamination. See index for Sour Cream recipes.
SOME HINTS ABOUT MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS
1. The wise housewife will never allow a drop of milk or cream to spoil or otherwise be wasted. Since light destroys both riboflavin and vitamin C, milk should be taken in promptly if delivered and refrigerated or stored in a cool dark place as soon as possible. It should be kept in the refrigerator when not being used and closely covered at all times to prevent contamination. Adding old milk to fresh will hasten the spoilage of the fresh, and should only be done if the entire amount is to be used at once. Developing the habit of placing the new fresh milk behind cartons of older milk will assure the use of the older milk before it has a chance to spoil.
2. In using buttermilk or sour cream in recipes, the commercial type should always be bought. The flavor and acidity are more nearly standardized in commercially prepared buttermilk and sour cream, and can be depended upon to produce a fine cooked product. Milk that sours in the home and that has an unpleasant flavor should not be used for beverages or in cooking.
3. It is practical in small families or even when large amount of milk are used in baking and cooking, to buy some milk that is not homogenized (When it is available.) and use the cream for cereals when the rich flavor of cream is very desirable. The remaining “skimmed” milk can be made into a flavored beverage or used in cooking where the lack or richness will not be noticed. This is nutritionally practical only if each family member obtains his full quota of whole milk. The caloric and vitamin intake of a child is impaired if the cream is removed from the milk other ways. Such compensation is hard to guarantee, however. But for use on cereal and in cooking the foods that the entire family enjoys, Using the “top milk” will prove economically and practical with no nutritional loss.
DON’T BELIEVE THESE FALLACIES ABOUT MILK
1. There is no physiological or chemical evidence to support the theory that milk and fish or ice cream and fish should not be eaten at the same meal. Milk and fish are entirely compatible, are eaten together in fish chowders and oyster stews with no ill effects whatever.
2. Milk is not a fattening food. The pint of milk a day, which is the recommendation for adults, contributes a little over 335 calories. Since the average adult man requires about 3000 calories, this only 11 percent of his total caloric need. The pint of milk, however, provides three-fourths of his need for calcium and about one-half of his phosphorus need, besides contributing significant amounts of several vitamins. On Very strict reducing diets, it is advisable to use skimmed milk; this provides only about one half the amounts of calories and about the same amount of B vitamins and mineral. However, skimmed milk contains very little vitamin A. since this nutrient is found in the cream fraction only.
3. Milk and acid fruits can be mixed with no ill effect. Actually the curd formed by the action of the acid on the milk probable facilitates the digestion of milk because curd forms naturally when milk reaches the stomach.